The role of CYP2C9 polymorphisms in phenytoin-related cerebellar atrophy
Purpose: Phenytoin is known to be able to induce cerebellar atrophy in patients with epilepsy. It is also known that a CYP2C9 mutation (*2 or *3) reduces phenytoin metabolism by 25 50% and can increase the risk of phenytoin related side effects. We examined the inﬂuence of CYP2C9 polymorphisms on total cerebellar volume and cerebellar gray and white matter volumes in patients with epilepsy taking phenytoin.
Methods: For the genotyping, 100 adult patients with documented epilepsy who had been taking phenytoin for >1 year were selected. From this group, we randomly selected 19 mutant individuals (MT group; CYP2C9*2 and *3) for a whole brain volume measurement using MRI and 19 wild type individuals (group WT; CYP2C9*1) with similar clinical and demographic characteristics to those in the MT group for comparison.
Total intracranial volume measurements were used to normalize the acquired volumes, which were separated into gray matter volume, white matter volume, and total volume.
Results: The MT group exhibited a signiﬁcant reduction in cerebellar white matter volume (p 0.002) but not in total cerebellar volume.
Conclusion: Our study is the ﬁrst to report evidence linking CYP2C9 polymorphism and a reduction in cerebellar volume in epileptic users of phenytoin.